Introduction

The Bologna Process
The Bologna Process, which started in 1999 with the Bologna Declaration and is for the time being scheduled to run until 2010, is in a decisive phase of implementation in the participating countries. In order to establish a common European Higher Education Area the Process is guided through ministerial conferences, at which progress and difficulties in achieving the goals are analysed and, where necessary, new priorities are set every two years. In addition to the official Bologna Follow-up Group, many actors are involved at the European level in shaping the Bologna Process and contribute to the implementation of the goals set within this Process.
However, the responsibility for achieving the goals of the Bologna Process lies with the countries themselves. This involves reforms of the higher education systems for all countries, which, depending on the initial situations, will ultimately be quite different and will require the collaboration of the various national actors. Besides explaining the basic goals of the Bologna Process it is necessary, taking into account national structures, to develop and implement regulation mechanisms that guarantee the successful implementation of the goals.
The Bologna Process, in its basic form, is so far an unparalleled and unique Europe-wide project of cooperation, especially with regard to the scope of the reforms associated with it, to the very heterogeneous starting situations in some of the participating countries and, not least, to its constantly developing organisational structure. The number of 29 signatory states at the beginning of the Process has since grown to 45 partners, bound together by the Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe.
The Federal Republic of Germany, with signatures of representatives of the Federal and State governments, is among the original 29 signatory states of the Bologna Declaration in 1999.
The Russian Federation joined the Bologna Process by signing the Declaration at the Berlin Conference in 2003. Since then appropriate reforms are being introduced there at the national level, while discussions about the Bologna goals are initiated and first practical implementation strategies are tested in regional initiatives.
Those actively involved in higher education and administration in both the Russian Federation and Germany as well as in the other participating countries still have a significant need for information about the political goals, decisions and action lines as well as the associated concepts of the Bologna Process.
This was what motivated the Subworking Group "Bologna" as part of the German-Russian Petersburg Dialogue and the publishers – the German Rectors' Conference (HRK) regarding the print version and the East West Science Centre of the University of Kassel regarding the online version – to produce the present three-language Glossary.

The Glossary
The reform processes in the participating countries have generated an abundance of detailed information, which sometimes pushes the basic objectives of the Bologna Process into the background. The present Glossary therefore contains the most important and most frequently used concepts. These cover the most essential aspects of the Bologna Process, without making any claim to completeness.
The choice of the concepts for the Glossary was made with respect to the ten action lines of the Bologna Process. Two further categories have been added: the social dimension of the Bologna Process, which is often described in official documents as an overarching or transversal action line, as eleventh category and stocktaking as twelfth category. A systematic list of the concepts and the terms assigned to these concepts at the beginning of the Glossary provides information about the allocation to the individual action lines and categories.
The definition of concepts is in line – where possible – with relevant Bologna documents, which were produced within the framework of the Bologna Process beginning with the Bologna Declaration of 1999. These are, in particular, the joint communiqués of the Ministers from the Bologna Follow-up Conferences in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003) and Bergen (2005). In addition there are used key documents that were published before, for example the Lisbon Recognition Convention of 1997, or during, for example the "Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area", the Bologna Process.
Various concepts used in the framework of the Bologna Process are not explicitly defined in the official documents. Nevertheless these concepts, such as quality assurance and accreditation, have a specific connotation in connection with the Bologna Process. The definitions in the Glossary, on the basis of other sources from the European context, reflect this.
The "national" explanations of concepts presented in the Glossary take the rather general definitions formulated in English and describe their meanings in the relevant national context in Germany and the Russian Federation. These explanations are deliberately formulated in the relevant national language so that the Glossary can serve, without linguistic limitations, as an information base for all concerned with and interested in the Bologna Process both in Germany and the Russian Federation. The definitions reflect the views of the authors and do not necessarily coincide with those of the publisher.
In the course of preparing this Glossary it became clear to those responsible for the project as well as to the German and Russian experts involved in preparing the national definitions that the most comprehensive view of the international and national aspects of the Bologna Process is provided by taking all three parts of the Glossary, which are structured according to the languages, into account. In the present version this comprehensive view is available only to those familiar with the three languages of the Glossary. A change of the original plan and a translation of the various national contexts into the other languages or into English only was, for reasons of time and funding, not possible here, but is certainly conceivable for future editions.
Those responsible and the authors are firmly convinced that the Glossary in its present form represents an instrument that provides a range of important items of information:
1. The definitions in English give the current status of the conceptual foundation of the Bologna Process with references to the basic documents.
2. The definitions in German and Russian describe, in addition to the meaning of the concepts, the national context, which means the respective status of the discussion about content and, in some cases, the implementation of the Bologna goals associated with it.
To supplement the present online version there is a print version with the title "Glossary on the Bologna Process English – German – Russian" available that has been published by the German Rectors' Conference (HRK) as volume 7/2006 in the series "Beiträge zur Hochschulpolitik" (order form at URL: http://www.hrk.de/eng/berichte_und_publikationen/131.php).

 
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