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Lifelong learning

In this glossary, we adopt a definition of lifelong learning (LLL) by the European Commission. According to this definition, LLL can be seen as "all purposeful learning activity, undertaken on an ongoing basis with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and ↑competences".[1] LLL is about "valuing all forms of learning, including: formal learning, such as a degree course followed at university; non-formal learning, such as vocational skills acquired at the workplace; and informal learning, such as inter-generational learning […] or learning how to play an instrument together with friends".[2] In the Prague Communiqué (2001), the European Ministers agreed that LLL is an "essential element of the ↑European Higher Education Area [EHEA]".[3] LLL strategies were seen as crucial in a knowledge-based society and economy. Therefore, the Ministers added LLL as a new action line of the ↑Bologna Process.[4] In the Berlin Communiqué (2003) it is stated that higher education institutions should develop opportunities for LLL at higher education level; these should include the ↑recognition of prior learning and a wide range of flexible learning paths, opportunities and techniques. Appropriate use of ↑ECTS credits should be made.[5] In the Bergen Communiqué (2005) it is stated that the complementarity between the overarching ↑qualifications framework for the EHEA and the proposed EU framework for qualifications for LLL (general education as well as vocational education and training) must be developed.[6]
Related terms:
↑Accreditation of prior learning (APL); ↑ECTS – European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System; ↑Formal, non-formal and informal learning

[1] Commission of the European Communities: A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Commission Staff Working Paper, SEC(2000) 1832, Brussels, 30.10.2000, p. 3; URL: http://www.bologna-berlin2003.de/pdf/memorandumEng.pdf (14.5.2006).

[3] Prague, p. 2.

[4] Cf. Prague, p. 2.

[5] Cf. Berlin, p. 6.

[6] Cf. Bergen, p. 2.

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