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Competences describe what a learner knows or is able to demonstrate after the completion of a learning process. This concerns both subject specific competences and generic competences, like communication skills and leadership. Within the so-called ↑Tuning project[1], university staff, students and employers were consulted on the competences they expect from graduates. It is important to mention that "competences are described as reference points for curriculum design and ↑evaluation, not as straightjackets. They allow flexibility and autonomy in the construction of curricula. At the same time, they provide a common language for describing what curricula are aiming at."[2]

[1] Cf. the information about the Tuning Educational Structures in Europe Project on the URL: http://tuning.unideusto.org/tuningeu/ (9.5.2006).

[2] Tuning Educational Structures in Europe II: Universities contribution to the Bologna Process, ed. by González, J.; Wagenaar, R., University of Deusto 2005, p. 33; URL: http://tuning.unideusto.org/tuningeu/ (9.5.2006).

Related terms: Formal, non-formal and informal learning; Learning outcome; Modules; Qualifications framework

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