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Transfer and accumulation of credits

In the following, a definition of both transfer and accumulation of credits will be given by using the example of ↑ECTS. In the report from Phase 1 of the ↑Tuning project, the difference between transfer and accumulation is explained: ECTS was originally tested and perfected as a transfer system in order to make it possible for universities in different European countries to describe the amount of academic work necessary to complete each of their ↑course units. Through the transfer of credits, the ↑recognition of students' work performed abroad was facilitated.[1] However, "in several countries ECTS or analogous national systems are used as official accumulation systems. This means that entire courses of study leading to recognised qualifications are using ECTS credits. […] The single course units which must be taken to obtain the degree can be described in terms of ↑workload and hence of credits. Credits are only obtained when the course unit or other activity has been successfully completed and assessed."[2] As mentioned above, a large number of countries has already adopted ECTS by law as a transfer and accumulation system. Nevertheless, other ↑credit systems do exist.
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Related terms:
↑Diploma Supplement; ↑Mobility

[1] Cf. Tuning Educational Structures in Europe: Final Report Phase I, edited by J. González and R. Wagenaar, University of Deusto 2003, p. 224; URL: http://www.tuning.unideusto.org (16.5.2006).

[2] Tuning Educational Structures in Europe: Final Report Phase I, edited by J. González and R. Wagenaar, University of Deusto 2003, p. 224; URL: http://www.tuning.unideusto.org (16.5.2006).

 
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